SPIE Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication, Volume 1: Microlithography
Section 2.7 Resists: 2.7.6 Other Research: Scanning Probes and Thin Imaging Layers
2.7.6 Other Research: Scanning Probes and Thin Imaging Layers
A great deal of research in electron-beam exposure of nanometer-scale patterns is in the field of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), which is covered in Sect. 8.3.3. For an excellent review of SPM lithography, see also the review article by Shedd and Russel. 
At low voltage (1 kV) and at higher energies, self-assembled monolayer [190-191] films have demonstrated high resolution but suffer from a very high defect density and difficulty in pattern transfer. Very thin films with lower defect density have been fabricated with Langmuir-Blodgett techniques.  Such thin imaging layers are important for low voltage exposures and in-situ processing. However, the imaging layer must be transferred into an intermediate film which is subsequently used as the etch or liftoff mask. This process adds substantially to the cost and complexity of processing. An alternative approach to generating a thin imaging layer on top of a thick resist is the use of surface silylation. In the PRIME silylation process [193-196] electron beam exposure prevents the subsequent silylation of (attachment of silicon containing molecules to) the resist surface. The silylated regions act as a mask for oxygen plasma etching of the resist film.
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