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SPIE Handbook of Microlithography, Micromachining and Microfabrication

Volume 1: Microlithography

2.10 References


Table of Contents
Previous section: 2.9 Appendix - GDSII Stream Format

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2.10 References

1. M. Hatzakis, "Electron resists for microcircuit and mask production," J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 1033-1037 (1969).

2. M. G. Rosenfield, M. G. R. Thomson, P. J. Coane, K. T. Kwietniak, J. Keller, D. P. Klaus, R. P. Volant, C. R. Blair, K. S. Tremaine, T. H. Newman, and F. J. Hohn, "Electron-beam lithography for advanced device prototyping: Process tool metrology," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11 (6), 2615-2620 (1993).

3. S. A. Rishton, H. Schmid, D. P. Kern, H. E. Luhn, T. H. P. Chang, G. A. Sai-Halasz, M. R. Wordeman, E. Ganin, and M. Polcari, "Lithography for ultrashort channel silicon field effect transistor circuits," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6 (1), 140-145 (1988).

4. C. P. Umbach, C. Van Haesendonck, R. B. Laibowitz, S. Washburn, R. A. Webb, "Direct observation of ensemble averaging of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in normal metal loops," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 386 (1986).

5. V. Chandrasekhar, M. J. Rooks, S. Wind, and D. E. Prober, "Observation of Aharonov-Bohm Electron Interference Effects with Periods h/e and h/2e in Individual Micron-Size, Normal-Metal Rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1610-1613 (1985).

6. S. Washburn, R. A. Webb, "Aharonov-Bohm effect in normal metal quantum coherence and transport," Advances in Physics 35, 375 (1986).

7. B. J. van Wees, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, J. G. Williamson, L. P. Kouwenhoven, D. van der Marel, C. T. Foxon, "Quantized conductance of point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 848 (1988).

8. M. J. Rooks, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, G. Snider, E. Hu, "Split-gate electron waveguide fabrication using multilayer PMMA," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2856 (1991).

9. P. H. Woerlee, G. A. M. Hurkx, W. J. M. J. Josquin, and J. F. C. M. Verhoeven, "Novel method of producing ultrasmall platinum silicide gate electrodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47 (7), 700-702 (1985).

10. E. Anderson, V. Boegli, M. Schattenburg, D. Kern, and H. Smith, "Metrology of electron-beam lithography systems using holographically produced reference samples," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9 (6), 3606-3611 (1991).

11. R. Viswanathan, D. Seeger, A. Bright, T. Bucelot, A. Pomerene, K. Petrillo, P. Blauner, P. Agnello, J. Warlaumont, J. Conway, and D. Patel, "Fabrication of high performance 512K static-random access memories in 0.25 um complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology using x-ray lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11 (6), 2910-2919 (1993).

12. S. Y. Chou, H. I. Smith, and D. A. Antoniadis, "Sub-100-nm channel-length transistors fabricated using x-ray lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4 (1), 253-255 (1986).

13. P. W. Hawkes and E. Kasper, Principles of Electron Optics, Academic Press, London (1989).

14. P. Grivet, Electron Optics, Elsevier, Oxford, Pergamon imprint (1965).

15. E. Munro, "Numerical modelling of electron and ion optics on personal computers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8 (6), 1657-1665 (1990).

16. H. Boersch, "Experimentelle Bestimmung der Energieverteilung in Thermisch Ausgelosten Elektronenstrahlen," Z. Phys. 139, 115-146 (1954).

17. M. Gesley, "Thermal field emission optics for nanolithography," J. Appl. Phys. 65 (3), 914-926 (1989).

18. T. H. P. Chang, "Proximity effect in electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1271-1275 (1975).

19. D. F. Kyser and N. S. Viswanathan, "Monte Carlo simulation of spatially distributed beams in electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12(6), 1305-1308 (1975).

20. M. Hatzakis, "Recent developments in electron-resist evaluation techniques," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12 (6), 1276-1279 (1975).

21. G. Brewer, ed., Electron-Beam Technology in Microelectronic Fabrication, Academic Press (1980).

22. R. Birkhoff, in Handbuck der Physik, E. Fluegge, ed., Springer, Berlin and New York, 53 (1958).

23. K. Murata, D. Kyser, and C. Ting, "Monte Carlo simulations of fast secondary electron production in electron beam resists," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4396-4405 (1981).

24. University of Califronia, Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering, Berkeley, CA USA.

25. Leica Ltd., Cambridge, UK; USA: 708-405-0213, -0147 fax. UK: 44-223-411-411, -211-310 fax.

26. Sigma-C GmbH, Rosenheimer Landstr. 74 D-85521 Ottobrunn Germany, 49 89 609 60 51.

27. AISS GmbH, represented byTranscription Enterprises Limited, 101 Albright Way, Los Gatos, CA 95030. 408-866-1851, fax: 408-866-4839.

28. S. A. Rishton and D. P. Kern, "Point exposure distribution measurements for proximity correction in electron beam lithography on a sub-100 nm scale," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B5 (1), 135-141 (1987).

29. M. Rosenfield, S. Rishton, D. Kern, and D. Seeger, "A study of proximity effects at high electron-beam voltages for x-ray mask fabrication. 1. Additive mask processes," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8 (6), 1763-1770 (1990).

30. E. Kratschmer, "Verification of a proximity effect correction program in electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19 (4), 1264-1268 (1981).

31. K. K. Christenson, R. G. Viswanathan, and F. J. Hohn, "X-ray mask fogging by electrons backscattered beneath the membrane," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8(6), 1618-1623 (1990).

32. Y. Yau, R. F. W. Pease, A. Iranmanesh, and K. Polasko, "Generation and applications of finely focused beams of low-energy electrons," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19(4), 1048 (1981).

33. M. A. McCord and T. H. Newman, "Low voltage, high resolution studies of electron beam resist exposure and proximity effect," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10(6), 3083-3087 (1992).

34. M. Parikh, "Self-consistent proximity effect correction technique for resist exposure (SPECTRE)," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15(3), 931-933 (1978).

35. H. Eisenmann, T. Waas, and H. Hartmann, "PROXECCO - Proximity effect correction by convolution," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11 (6), 2741-2745 (1993).

36. K. Harafuji, A. Misaka, K. Kawakita, N. Nomura, H. Hamaguchi, and M. Kawamoto, "Proximity effect correction data processing system for electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10 (1), 133-142 (1992).

37. K. Cummings, R. Frye, E. Rietman, "Using a neural network to proximity correct patterns written with a Cambridge electron beam microfabricator 10.5 lithography system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1431-1433 (1990).

38. J. Jacob, S. Lee, J. McMillan, and N. MacDonald, "Fast proximity effect correction: An extension of PYRAMID for circuit patterns of arbitrary size," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10 (6), 3077-3082 (1992).

39. B. D. Cook, S.-Y. Lee, "Fast proximity effect correction: An extension of PYRAMID for thicker resists", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 2762 (1993).

40. G. Owen and P. Rissman, "Proximity effect correction for electron beam lithography by equalization of background dose," J. Appl. Phys. 54 (6), 3573-3581 (1983).

41. M. Gesley and M. A. McCord, "100 kV GHOST electron beam proximity correction on tungsten x-ray masks," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12 (6), 3478-3482 (1994).

42. Y. Kuriyama, S. Moriya, S. Uchiyama, and N. Shimazu, "Proximity effect correction for x-ray mask fabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6983-6988 (1994).

43. T. Abe, S. Yamasaki, T. Yamaguchi, R. Yoshikawa, and T. Takigawa, "Representative Figure Method for Proximity Effect Correction [II]," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30 (11), 2965-2969 (1991).

44. CAPROX, trademark of Sigma-C GmbH, Rosenheimer Landstr. 74 D-85521 Ottobrunn Germany, 49 89 609 60 51. Distributed by Raith GmbH, Hauert 18, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany (0231-97-50-000) or Raith USA, 6 Beech Rd, Islip, NY 11751, 516-224-1764, 516-224-2620 fax, 73164.1330@compuserve.com.

45. PROXECCO, distributed byTranscription Enterprises Limited, 101 Albright Way, Los Gatos, CA 95030. 408-866-1851, fax: 408-866-4839.

46. Y. Pati, A. Teolis, D. Park, R. Bass, K. Rhee, B. Bradie, and M. Peckerar, "An error measure for dose correction in e-beam nanolithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8 (6), 1882-1888 (1990).

47. Raith GmbH, Hauert 18, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany (0231-97-50-000) or Raith USA, 6 Beech Rd, Islip, NY 11751, 516-224-1764, 516-224-2620 fax, 73164.1330@compuserve.com.

48. J.C. Nabity Lithography Systems, PO Box 5354, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA, (406-587-0848), jcnabity@aol.com.

49. Data Translation Inc., 800-525-8528.

50. J. C. Nabity, M. N. Wybourne, "A versatile pattern generator for high-resolution electron-beam lithography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60 (1) (1989).

51. The Leica SEM division and the Zeiss SEM/TEM division have merged to form a new, separate comany, Leo Electron Optics. US Address: One Zeiss Drive, Thornwood, NY 10594, 800-356-1090.

52. R. Kendall, S. Doran, E. Weissmann, "A servo guided X-Y-theta stage for electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9, 3019 (1991).

53. R. Innes, "Yaw compensation for an electron-beam lithography system", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3580 (1994).

54. H. Ohta, T. Matsuzaka, N. Saitou, "New electron optical column with large field for nanometer e-beam lithography system", Proc. SPIE 2437 185 (1995).

55. Jenoptik Technologie GmbH, Microfabrication Division, D-07739 Jena, Germany, 49-3641-653181 (voice) 49-3641-653654 (fax). The electron beam lithography division of Jenoptik has recently been acquired by Leica Ltd. , Cambridge, UK, to form Leica Lithographie Systeme Jena GmbH; USA: 708-405-0213, -0147 fax. UK: 44-223-411-411, -211-310 fax.

56. J. Ingino, G. Owen, C. N. Berglund, R. Browning, R. F. W. Pease, "Workpiece charging in electron beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12 (3) 1367 (1994).

57. M. Gesley, F. Abboud, D. Colby, F. Raymond, S. Watson, "Electron beam column developments for submicron- and nanolithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32 5993 (1993).

58. M. Gesley, "MEBES IV thermal-field emission tandem optics for electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9 (6) 2949 (1991).

59. H. Pearce-Percy, R. Prior, F. Abboud, A. Benveniste, L. Gasiorek, M. Lubin, F. Raymond, "Dynamic corrections in MEBES 4500," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12 (6) 3393 (1994).

60. A. Murray, F. Abboud, F. Raymond, C. N. Berglund, "Feasibility study of new graybeam writing strategies for raster scan mask generation," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11 (6) 2390 (1993).

61. Lepton Inc., Murray Hill NJ 07974, 908-771-9490.

62. D. M. Walker, D. C. Fowlis, S. M. Kugelmass, K. A. Murray, C. M. Rose, "Advanced mask and reticle generation using EBES4," Proc. SPIE 2322, 56 (1994).

63. M. G. R. Thomson, R. Liu, R. J. Collier, H. T. Carroll, E. T. Doherty, R. G. Murray, "The EBES4 electron-beam column," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B5 (1) 53 (1987).

64. D. W. Peters, D. C. Fowlis, A. von Neida, C. M. Rose, H. A. Waggener, W. P. Wilson, "EBES4: Performance of a new e-beam reticle generator," SPIE vol. 1924, 193 (1993).

65. H. C. Pfeiffer, D. E. Davis, W. A. Enichen, M. S. Gordon, T. R. Groves, J. G. Hartley, R. J. Quickle, J. D. Rockrohr, W. Stickel, E. V. Weber, "EL-4, a new generation electron-beam lithography system," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11 (6) 2332 (1993).

66. P. F. Petric, M. S. Gordon, J. Senesi, D. F. Haire, "EL-4 column and control," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11 (6) 2309 (1993).

67. J. D. Rockrohr, R. Butsch, W. Enichen, M. S. Gordon, T. R. Groves, J. G. Hartley, H. C. Pfeiffer, "Performance of IBM's EL-4 e-beam lithography system", Proc. SPIE 2437 160 (1995).

68. R. Kendall, S. Doran, E. Weissmann, "A servo guided X-Y-theta stage for electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9, 3019 (1991).

69. R. Innes, "Yaw compensation for an electron-beam lithography system", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12 3580 (1994).

70. H. Elsner, P. Hahmann, G. Dahm, H. W. P. Koops, "Multiple beam-shaping diaphragm for efficient exposure of gratings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2373 (1993).

71. K. Nakamura, T. Okino, S. Nakanoda, I. Kawamura, N. Goto, Y. Nakagawa, W. Thompson, M. Hassel Shearer, "An advanced electron beam lithography system for sub-half-micron ultra-large-scale production: the distortion corrector technology," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8(6) 1903 (1990).

72. T. Komagata, H. Takemura, N. Gotoh, K. Tanaka, "Development of EB lithography system for next generation photomasks," Proc. SPIE 2512, 190 (1995).

73. H. C. Pfeiffer, "Projection exposure with variable axis immersion lenses:a high-throughput electron beam approach to "suboptical" lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34 6658 (1995).

74. Y. Someda, H. Satoh, Y. Sohda, Y. Nakayama, N. Saitou, H. Itoh, M. Sasaki, "Electron-beam cell projection lithography: Its accuracy and its throughput," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12(6) 3399 (1994).

75. G. H. Jansen, "Coulomb interactions in particle beams", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B6 1977 (1988).

76. K. Hattori, R. Yoshikawa, H. Wada, H. Kusakabe, T. Yamaguchi, S. Magoshi, A. Miyagaki, S. Yamasaki, T. Takigawa, M. Kanoh, S. Nishimura, H. Housai, S. Hashimoto, "Electron-beam direct writing system EX-8D employing character projection exposure method," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2346 (1993).

77. K. Sakamoto, S. Fueki, S. Yamazaki, T. Abe, K. Kobayashi, H. Nishino, T. Satoh, A. Takemoto, A. Ookura, M. Oono, S. Sago, Y. Oae, A. Yamada, H. Yasuda, "Electron-beam block exposure system for a 256 M dynamic random access memory," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2357 (1993).

78. A. Yamada, K. Sakamoto, S. Yamazaki, K. Kobayashi, S. Sago, M. Oono, H. Watanabe, H. Yasuda, "Deflector and correction coil calibrations inan electron beam block exposure system," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12(6) 3404 (1994).

79. M. Kawano, K. Mizuno, H. Yoda, Y. Sakitani, K. Andou, N. Saitou, "Continuous writing method for high speed electron-beam direct writing system HL-800D," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2323 (1993).

80. G. H. Jansen, Coulomb Interactions in Particle Beams (Academic, Boston, 1990).

81. S. Berger, D. J. Eaglesham, R. C. Farrow, R. R. Freeman, J. S. Kraus, J. A. Liddle, "Particle-particle interaction effects in image projection lithography systems," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2294 (1993).

82. Y. Someda, H. Satoh, Y. Sohda, Y. Nakayama, N. Saitou, H. Itoh, M. Sasaki, "Electron-beam cell projection lithography: Its accuracy and its throughput," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12(6) 3399 (1994).

83. Y. Nakayama, S. Okazaki, N. Saitou, H. Wakabayashi, "Eelctron-beam cell projection lithography: A new high-throughput electron-beam direct-writing technology using a specially tailored Si aperture," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8 1836 (1990).

84. J. A. Liddle, C. A. Volkert, "Stress-induced pattern-placement errors in thin membrane masks," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12(6) 3528 (1994).

85. H. P. W. Koops, J. Grob, Springer Series in Optical Sciences: X-ray Microscopy (Springer, Berlin, 1984) vol. 43.

86. S. D. Berger, J. M. Gibson, "New approach to projection-electron lithography with demonstrated 0.1um linewidth," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 (2) 153 (1990).

87. S. D. Berger, J. M. Gibson, R. M. Camarda, R. C. Farrow, H. A. Huggins, J. S. Kraus, "Projection electron-beam lithography: A new approach," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9(6) 2996 (1991).

88. J. A. Liddle, S. D. Berger, C. J. Biddick, M. I. Blankey, K. J. Bolan, S. W. Bowler, K. Brady, R. M. Camarda, W. F. Connely, A. Crorken, J. Custy, R. C. Farrow, J. A. Felker, L. A. Fetter, B. Freeman, L. R. Harriott, L. Hopkins, H. A. Huggins, C. S. Knurek, J. S. Kraus, D. A. Mixon, M. M. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Novembre, M. L. Peabody, W. M. Simpson, R. G. Tarascon, H. H. Wade, W. K. Waskiewicz, G. P. Watson, J. K. Williams, D. L. Windt, "The Scattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron-Beam Lithography (SCALPEL) System," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6663 (1995).

89. J. A. Liddle, H. A. Huggins, S. D. Berger, J. M. Gibson, G. Weber, R. Kola, C. W. Jurgensen, "Mask fabrication for projection electron-beam lithography incorporating the SCALPEL technique," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9(6) 3000 (1991).

90. G. P. Watson, S. D. Berger, J. A. Liddle, W. K. Waskiewicz, "A background dose proximity effect correction technique for scattering with angular limitation projection electron lithography implemented in hardware", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13, 2504 (1995).

91. H. W. P. Koops, Microcircuit Engineering 88 (North-Holland, New York, 1989) p.217.

92. G. E. Shedd and P. E. Russel, "The scanning tunneling microscope as a tool for nanofabrication," Nanotechnology 1, 67 (1990).

93. N. C. MacDonald, W. Hofmann, L.-Y. Chen, J. H. Das, "Micro-machined electron gun arrays (MEGA)", Proc. SPIE 2522, 220 (1995).

94. W. Hofmann, L.-Y. Chen, N. C. MacDonald, "Fabrication of integrated micromachined electron guns", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13, 2701 (1995).

95. N. Shimazu, K. Saito, M. Fujinami, "An approach to a high-throughput e-beam writing with a single-gun multiple-path system," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 6689 (1995).

96 . T. H. P. Chang, D. P. Kern, L. P. Murray, "Arrayed miniature electron beam columns for high throughput sub-100 nm lithography", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 2743 (1992).

97. D. A. Crewe, D. C. Perng, S. E. Shoaf, A. D. Feinerman, "Micromachined electrostatic electron source", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 2754 (1992).

98. G. W. Jones, S. K. Jones, M. D. Walters, B. W. Dudley, "Microstructures for control of multiple ion or electron beams", IEEE Trans. Electr. Dev. 36, 2686 (1989).

99. E. Kratschmer, H. S. Kim, M. G. R. Thomson, K. Y. Lee, S. A. Rishton, M. L. Yu, T. H. P. Chang, "Sub-49nm resolution 1 keV scanning tunneling microscope field-emission microcolumn," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3503 (1994).

100. E. Kratschmer, H. S. Kim, M. G. R. Thomson, K. Y. Lee, S. A. Rishton, M. L. Yu, T. H. P. Chang, "An electron-beam microcolumn with improved resolution, beam current, and stability", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13, 2498 (1995).

101. Cadence Design Systems, 555 River Oaks Parkway, San Jose, CA (USA) 408-943-1234. See also http://www.cadence.com.

102. Mentor Graphics Corp. Gateway Marketing Center, P.O. Box 5050, Wilsonville, OR 97070. 800-547-3000, fax: 503-685-8001. E-mail: gen-del@gateway.mentorg.com

103. Silvar Lisco, 703 E. Evelyn Av., Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 800-624-9978, 408-991-6000, fax: 408-737-9979.

104. Integrated Silicon Systems, P.O. Box 13665, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. 800-422-3585.

105. Refer to the Semiconductor International Buyer's Guide issue for a list of other CAD vendors.

106. Design Workshop, 4226 St. John's, Suite 400 D. D. O. Quebec H9G 1X5, 514-696-4753, fax: 514-696-5351.

107. Tanner Research, 180 North Vinedo Av., Pasadena, CA 91107. 818-792-3000, fax: 818-792-0300.

108. DXF to GDSII conversion software is available from Artwork Conversion Software, 1320 Mission St. #5, Santa Cruz CA 95060 (408-426-6163.)

109. For information on ordering these programs and on the Berkeley Industrial Liaison Program, see http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/ILP/Catalog/index.html

110. R. W. Hon, C. H. Sequin, A Guide to LSI Implementation, Second Edition, p.79. (XEROX Palo Alto Research Center, 3333 Coyote Rd., Palo Alto, CA 94304, 1980).

111. C. Mead, L. Conway, Introduction to VLSI Systems (Addison-Wesley, Reading MA 1980).

112. See http://info.broker.isi.edu/1/mosis

113. These rules provided by S. Reynolds, ISI (MOSIS) 4676 Admiralty Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292.

114. Transcription Enterprises Limited, 101 Albright Way, Los Gatos, CA 95030. 408-866-1851, fax: 408-866-4839.

115. SIGMA-C GmbH, Rosenheimer Landstr. 74, D-85521, Munich, Germany, phone 49-89-609-6051, fax 49-89-609-8112, caprox@sigma-c.de. U.S. distributor: Raith Co., 6 Beech Rd, Islip, NY 11751, 516-224-1764, 516-224-2620 fax, 73164.1330@compuserve.com.

116. JEBCAD is sold by JEOL-USA, 111 Dearborn Rd, Peabody, MA 01960 (508-535-5900.) In Japan, JEOL Ltd., 1-2 Musashino 3-chome, Akishima Tokyo 196 (0425-42-2187.)

117. Design Workshop, 4226 St. John's, Suite 400 D. D. O. Quebec H9G 1X5, 514-696-4753, fax: 514-696-5351.

118. E. Reichmanis, L. F. Thompson, "Polymer materials for microlithography," in Annual Review of Materials Science vol. 17, R. A. Huggins, J. A. Giordmaine, J. B. Wachtman, Jr., eds. (Annual Reviews, Inc. Palo Alto, CA, 1987) p. 235.

119. E. Reichmanis, A. E. Novembre, "Lithographic resist materials chemistry," in Annual Review of Materials Science vol. 23, R. A. Laudise, E. Snitzer, R. A. Huggins, J. A.Giordmaine, J. B. Wachtman, Jr., eds. (Annual Reviews, Inc. Palo Alto, CA) 1993, p. 11.

120. C. Grant Willson, "Organic resist materials - theory and chemistry," in Introduction to Microlithography, L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, eds., ACS Symposium Series 219 (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 1983) p.87.

121. Materials for Microlithography - Radiation-Sensitive Polymers, L. F. Thompson, D. G. Willson, J. M. J. Fr*chet, eds., ACS Symposium Series 266 (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 1984).

122. C. G. Willson, "Organic Resist Materials", and L. F. Thompson, "Resist Processing", in Introduction to Microlithography,Second Edition, L. F. Thompson, C. G. Willson, M. J. Bowden, eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington DC, 1994).

123. A. Weill, "The spin coating process mechanism," in The Physics and Fabricaton of Microstructures and Microdevices, M. J. Kelly, C. Weisbuch, eds., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986) p. 51.

124. T. Tanaka, M. Morigami, and N. Atoda, "Mechanism of resist pattern collapse during development process," Jpn. J. Appl.Phys 32, 6059 (1993).

125. The program SELID is available from Sigma-C GmbH, Rosenheimer Landstr. 74 D-85521 Ottobrunn Germany, 49 89 609 60 51.

126. T. E. Everhart, in Materials in Microlithography, L. F. Thompson et al., eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington DC 1984).

127. Gold etch solution type TFA from Transene Co., Rowley MA.

128. Chrome etch type CR-14 from Cyantek Corp., 3055 Osgood Ct., Fremont CA 94538.

129. M. Kurihara, M. Arai, H. Fujita, H. Moro-oka, Y. Takahashi, H. Sano, "Primary processes in e-beam and laser lithographies for phase-shift mask manufacturing II," SPIE vol. 1809, 12th Annual BACUS Symposium, 50 (1992).

130. C. A.Kondek, L. C. Poli, "A submicron e-beam lithography process using an overcoating conducting polymer for the reduction of beam charging effects on lithium niobate and quartz," Proc. SPIE vol. 2194 p.366 (1994).

131. M. Angelopoulos, J. M. Shaw, K. Lee, W. Huang, M. Lecorre, M. Tissier, "Lithographic applications of conducting polymers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9(6) 3428 (1991).

132. M. Angelopoulos, N. Patel, J. M. Shaw, N. C. Labianca, S. A. Rishton, "Water soluble conducting polyanilines: Applications in lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2794 (1993).

133. I. Haller, M. Hatzakis, R. Srinivasan, "High-resolution positive resists for electron-beam exposure," IBM J. Res. Develop. 12 251 (1968).

134. M. Hatzakis, "Electron resists for microcircuit and mask production," J. Electrochem. Soc. 116 1033 (1969).

135. PMMA vendors include: OCG Microelectronic Materials Inc., 5 Garret Mountain Plaza, West Paterson, NJ 07424, 800-222-4868. Microlithography Chemical Corp., 1254 Chestnut St. Newton, MA 02164 617-965-5511 617-965-5818 fax. Mead Chemical Co., 10750 County Rd. 2000, PO Box 748, Rolla, MO 65401. 314-364-8844.

136. G. H. Bernstein, D. A. Hill, "On the attainment of optimum developer parameters for PMMA resist," Superlattices and Microstructures 11 (2) 237 (1992).

137. B. P. Van der Gaag, A. Sherer, "Microfabrication below 10nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 481 (1990).

138. D. W. Keith, R. J. Soave, M. J. Rooks, "Free-standing gratings and lenses for atom optics," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9 (6) 2846 (1991).

139. W. C. B. Peatman, P. A. D. Wood, D. Porterfield, T. W. Crowe, M. J. Rooks, "Quarter-micrometer GaAs Schottky barrier diode with high video responsivity at 118 m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61 294 (1992).

140. R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. D. G. Hall, "Facetless Bragg reflector surface-emitting AlGaAs/GaAs lasers fabricated by electron-beam lithography and chemically assisted ion-beam etching", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9 2842 (1991).

141. Note that this liftoff process allows the use of ultrasonic agitation because chrome sticks very well to silicon. The ultrasonic process causes lines of aluminum to peal off the surface. A common belief is that once the substrate is dry, the metal cannot be made to separate from the surface. This is not necessarily true. If the metal pattern adheres well to the substrate (e.g., Cr or Ti), then further ultrasonic agitation in the solvent may well continue the liftoff process and improve the yield of devices.

142. T. Tada, "Highly sensitive positive electron resists consisting of halogenated alkyl -chloroacrylate series polymer materials," J. Electrochem. Soc. 130 912 (1983).

143. Toray Marketing and Sales, 1875 S. Grant St., Suite 720, San Mateo, CA 94402. 415-341-7152. Toray Industries, 1-8-1 Mihama Urayasu Inc., Chiba, Japan.

144. K. Nakamura, S. L. Shy, C. C. Tuo, C. C. Huang, "Critical dimension control of poly-butene-sulfone resist in electron beam lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 6989 (1994).

145. M. Widat-alla, A. Wong, D. Dameron, C. Fu, "Submicron e-beam process control," Semiconductor International (May 1988), p. 252.

146. Pre-spun mask plates are sold by Hoya Electronics Co., Ft. Lee, NJ.; Balzers Optical Co., Marlborough, MA; see the Semiconductor International Buyer's Guide for other vendors.

147. Mead Chemical Co., 10750 County Rd. 2000, PO Box 748, Rolla, MO 65401. 314-364-8844.

148. Nippon Zeon is represented in the US by Nagase California Corp., 710 Lakeway, Suite 135, Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 408-773-0700.

149. K. Kurihara, K. Iwadate, H. Namatsu, M. Nagase, H. Takenaka, K. Murase, "An electron beam nanolithography system and its application to Si nanofabrication," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34 6940 (1995).

150. T. Nishida, M. Notomi, R. Iga, T. Tamamura, "Quantum wire fabrication by e-beam lithographyusing high-resolution and high-sensitivity e-beam resist ZEP-520," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, Pt. 1, no.12B, 4508 (1992).

151. J. Pacansky, R. J. Waltman, "Solid-state electron beam chemistry of mixtures of diazoketones in phenolic resins: AZ resists," J. Phys. Chem. 92 4558 (1988).

152. Hoechst Celanese Corp, AZ Photoresist Products, 70 Meister Ave., Somerville, NJ 08876. 908-429-3500.

153. M. Kurihara, M. Komada, H. Moro-oka, N. Hayashi, H. Sano, "EBR900 processes in e-beam and laser beam lithographies for photomask production", Proc. SPIE 2437, 240 (1995).

154. A. E. Novembre, R. G. Tarascon, O. Nalamasu, L. Fetter, K. J. Bolan, C. S. Knurek, "Electron-beam and x-ray lithographic characteristics of the optical resist ARCH", Proc. SPIE 2437, 104 (1995).

155. OCG Microelectronic Materials Inc., 5 Garret Mountain Plaza, West Paterson, NJ 07424, 800-222-4868.

156. Shipley Inc., 455 Forest St., Marlboro, MA 01752. 800-343-3013.

157. D. Macintyre, S. Thoms, "High resolution electron beam lithography studies on Shipley chemically amplified DUV resists," presented at the MNE Conference, September 1996; to appear in Micro- and Nano-engineering 96, Procedings of the International Conference on Micro- and Nano-engineering, S. P. Beaumont ed., vol. 29.

158. E. Reichmanis, L. F. Thompson, "Polymer materials for microlithography," in Annual Review of Materials Science, v.17, R. A. Huggins, J. A. Giordmaine, J. B. Wachtman Jr., eds. (Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, 1987) p.238.

159. T. Yoshimura, Y. Nakayama, S. Okazaki, "Acid-diffusion effect on nanofabrication in chemical amplification resist," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10(6) 2615 (1992).

160. E. A. Dobisz, C. R. K. Marrian, "Sub-30nm lithography in a negative electron beam resist with a vacuum scanning tunneling microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(22) 2526 (1991).

161. A. Claßen, S. Kuhn, J. Straka, A. Forchel, "High voltage electron beam lithography of the resolution limits of SAL601 negative resist," Microelectronic Engineering 17 21 (1992).

162. D. A. Mixon, A. E. Novembre, W. W. Tai, C. W. Jurgensen, J. Frackoviak, L. E. Trimble, R. R. Kola, G. K. Celler, "Patterning of x-ray masks using the negative-acting resist P(SI-CMS)," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11(6) 2834 (1993).

163. A. E. Novembre, D. A. Mixon, C. Pierrat, C. Knurek, M. Stohl, "Dry etch patterning of chrome on glass optical masks using P(SI-CMS) resist," Proc. SPIE 2087 50 (1993).

164. C. W. Lo, W. K. Lo, M. J. Rooks, M. Isaacson, H. G. Craighead, A. E. Novembre, "Studies of 1 and 2 keV electron beam lithography using silicon containing P(SI-CMS) resist", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13 2980 (1995).

165 . K. J. Stewart, M. Hatzakis, J. M. Shaw, D. E. Seeger, E. Neumann, "Simple negative resist for deep ultiraviolet, electron beam, and x-ray lithography", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B7 1734 (1989).

166. K. G. Chiong, S. Wind. D. Seeger, "Exposure characteristics of high-resolution negative resists", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B8 1447 (1990).

167. K. G. Chiong, F. J. Hohn, "Resist patterning for sub-quarter micron device fabrications", Proc. SPIE 1465 221 (1991).

168. N. LaBianca, J. D. Gelorme, "High aspect ratio resist for thick film applications", Proc. SPIE 2438 846 (1995).

169. W. Moreau, C. H. Ting, "High sensitivity positive electron resisit," US Patent 3934057, 1976.

170. S. Mackie, S. P. Beaumont, Solid State Technology 28 117 (1985).

171. M. J. Rooks, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, G. L. Snider, E. L. Hu, "Split-gate electron waveguide fabrication using multilayer poly(methyl methacrylate)," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9(6) 2856 (1991).

172. Microlithography Chemical Corp., 249 Pleasant St., Watertown, MA 02172. 617-926-3322, -2919 fax.

173. M. Hatzakis, "PMMA copolymers as high sensitivity electron resists," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(6) 1984 (1979). M. Hatzakis, "High sensitivity resist system for lift-off metallization," U.S. Patent No. 4024293 (1977).

174. P(MMA-MAA) and PMMA may be purchased from OCG Microelectronic Materials Inc., 5 Garret Mountain Plaza, West Paterson, NJ 07424, 800-222-4868; or from the Microlithography Chemical Corp., 249 Pleasant St., Watertown, MA 02172. 617-926-3322, -2919 fax.

175. R. E. Howard, E. L. Hu, L. D. Jackel, "Multilevel resist for lithography below 100nm," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-28(11) 1378 (1981).

176. G. J. Dolan, "Offset masks for lift-off photoprocessing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 337 (1977).

177. R. E. Howard, D. E. Prober, "Nanometer-scale fabrication techniques," in VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science vol. 5, (Academic Press, New York, 1982).

178. H. Takenaka, Y. Todokoro, "A PMMA/PMGI two layer resist system for stable lift-off processing," Proc. SPIE 1089 132 (1989).

179. M. P. de Grandpre, D. A. Vidusek, M. W. Legenza, "A totally aqueous developable bilayer resist system," Proc. SPIE 539, 103 (1985). M. W. Legenza, D. A. Vidusek, M. P. Grandpre, "A new class of bilevel and mono-level positive resist systems based on a chemically stable imide polymer," Proc. SPIE 539, 250 (1985).

180. R. C. Tiberio, J. M. Limber, G. J. Galvin, E. D. Wolf, "Electron beam lithography and resist processing for the fabrication of T-gate structures," Proc. SPIE 1089, 124 (1989).

181. A. N. Broers, "Micromachining by sputtering through a mask of contamination laid down by an electron beam," in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Electron and Ion Beam Science and Technology, R. Bakish, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1964) p.191.

182. R. Voss, R. B. Laibowitz, A. N. Broers, "Niobium nanobridge DC SQUID," Appl. Phys. Lett. 37 656 (1980).

183. C. P. Umbach, S. Washburn, R. A. Webb, R. Koch, M. Bucci, A. N. Broers, R. B. Laibowitz, "Observation of the h/e Aharonov-Bohm interference effects in sub-micron diameter, normal metal rings," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4 383 (1986).

184. P. Mankiewich, H. G. Craighead, T. R. Harrison, A. Dayen, "High resolution electron beam lithography on CaF2", Appl. Phys. Lett. 44 468 (1984).

185. E. Kratschmer, M. Isaacson, "Nanostructure fabrication in metals, insulators, and semiconductors using self-developing metal inorganic resist," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4(1) 361 (1986).

186. M. Isaacson, A. Muray, "In situ vaporization of very low molecular weight resists using 1/2 nm diameter electron beams," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 1117 (1981).

187. W. Langhenrich, A. Vescan, B. Spangenberg, H. Beneking, Microelectronics Engineering 17, 287 (1992). W. Langhenrich, H. Beneking, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 6248 (1993).

188. J. Fujita, H. Watanabe, Y. Ochiai, S. Manako, J. S. Tsai, S. Matsui, "Sub-10 nm lithography and development properties of inorganic resist by scanning electron beams", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13, 2757 (1995).

189. D. R. Allee, X. D. Pan, A. N. Broers, C. P. Umbach, "ultra-high resolution electron beam patterning of SiO2: A review," in Science and Technology of Mesoscopic Structures, S. Namba, C. Hanmaguchi, T. Ando, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, 1991) p. 362.

190. M. J. Lercel, G. F. Redinbo, F. D. Pardo, M. Rooks, R. C. Tiberio, P. Simpson, H. G. Craighead, C. W. Sheen, A. N. Parikh, D. L. Allara, "Electron beam lithography with monolayers of alkylthiols and alkylsiloxanes," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12(6) 3663 (1994).

191. R. C. Tiberio, H. G. Craighead, M. Lercel, T. Lau, C. W. Sheen, D. L. Allara, "Self assembled monolayer electron beam resist on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 476 (1993).

192. S. W. J. Kuan, C. W. Frank, Y. H. Y. Lee, T. Eimori, D. R. Allee, R. F. W. Pease, R. Browning, "Ultrathin Poly(MMA) resist films for microlithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B7, 1745 (1989).

193. M. Böttcher, L. Bauch, "Surface imaging by silylation for low voltage electron-beam lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3473 (1994).

194. C. Pierrat, S. Tedesco, F. Vinet, T. Mourier, M. Lerme, B. Dal'Zotto, J. C. Guibert, "PRIME process for deep UV and E-beam lithography", Microelectronic Engineering, 11, 507 (1990).

195. C. Pierrat, "New model of polymer silylation: application to lithography", J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B10, 2581 (1992).

196. M. Irmscher, B. Höfflinger, R. Springer, "Comparative evaluation of chemically amplified resists for electron-beam top surface imaging use," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B12, 3925 (1994).

197. Portions of the GDSII Stream Format Manual, Documentation No. B97E060, Feb. 1987, reprinted with permission of Cadence Design Systems, Inc., 555 River Oaks Parkway, San Jose, CA 95134. 408-943-1234. See also the web site http://www.cadence.com.

198. A useful set of GDSII utilities is available for the VMS operating system. This set includes programs for syntax checking, dumping to ASCII, building from ASCII, rotating and scaling cells, printing cell hierarchies, printing data extents, and displaying layer occupation. For purchase information contact the Cornell NanoScale Facility at 607-255-2329, or information@cnf.cornell.edu.


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